Download PDF by 牧野成一, 1935- Seiichi Makino Michio Tsutsui. 筒井廸夫, ; Seiichi: A dictionary of basic Japanese grammar = 日本語基本文法辞典 / A

By 牧野成一, 1935- Seiichi Makino Michio Tsutsui. 筒井廸夫, ; Seiichi Makino; Michio Tsutsui

ISBN-10: 4789004546

ISBN-13: 9784789004541

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Additional resources for A dictionary of basic Japanese grammar = 日本語基本文法辞典 / A dictionary of basic Japanese grammar = Nihongo kihon bunpō jiten

Example text

Howj don't you know [cp what¿ PRO to fix t¿ t j ] ? In (39-a), a direct object what has undergone long-distance movement in one swoop from a non-finite iu/i-island (SpecC being already filled by how). Since the object trace t¿ is θ-governed, an ECP violation does not arise in (39-a). However, CP is a barrier between what and t¿, and this barrier induces a Subjacency effect (t¿ is not subjacent to what), which is responsible for the intermediate status of (39-a). A parallel case involving adjunct movement (as in (39-b)), however, is strongly ungrammatical, because the adjunct trace t j is not θ-governed, and therefore depends on antecedent-government by its chain antecedent (how).

With this assumption in mind, reconsider the examples in (6-ab), repeated here as (9-ab). (9) a. [ To whom ]¿ did you regret [cp t· that you could not speak t¿ ] ? b. *HoWj did you regret [cp t· that you behaved t¿ ] ? The initial traces t t in (9-ab) are properly governed, as we have seen. But now suppose that complements of non-bridge predicates are barriers (this 22 Proper government and subjacency will be derived below). Then, the intermediate traces t- in (9-ab) are not properly governed - they axe neither θ-governed nor antecedent-governed.

X ... If none of the options in (18) is available, two heads will count as distinct. Given that head movement (at S-structure and at LF) leaves traces, the problem arises of how a trace of head movement can be properly governed so as to fulfill the ECP. Baker (1988) convincingly argues that X°-traces cannot fulfill the ECP via θ-government. What remains, then, is that head traces must be antecedent-governed. However, head movement in general is to be analysed as adjunction, as shown in (18-b); and an adjoined head fails to ccommand its trace, as shown in (19) (given the standard notion of c-command developed by Reinhart (1976) and Chomsky (1986), among others, in terms of the next branching node).

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A dictionary of basic Japanese grammar = 日本語基本文法辞典 / A dictionary of basic Japanese grammar = Nihongo kihon bunpō jiten by 牧野成一, 1935- Seiichi Makino Michio Tsutsui. 筒井廸夫, ; Seiichi Makino; Michio Tsutsui

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