By FIRST LIEUT. W.E.W. MACKINLAY
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Extra resources for A handbook and grammar of the Tagalog language
Indeed, the Cambridge Grammar (Huddleston and Pullum 2002) classiﬁes most verb combinations as bi-clausal combinations, even auxiliary and main verb combinations. What this means in practice is that structures traditionally thought of as a single verbal element and thus a single clause, such as the present perfect ‘the bear has eaten the honey’ are reanalysed as one ﬁnite clause followed by a separate non-ﬁnite complement clause ‘the bear has eaten the honey’. The clause system of English, according to the Cambridge Grammar, is as follows: The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (Huddleston and Pullum 2002) There are ten clause types that can combine.
A ‘tight’ clause means that a clausal constituent has, in comparison to a ‘loose’ clause, more dependence on the clause with which it combines, typically a main clause. Other models of hierarchy exist also, which distribute clauses along a cline of verbal to nominal propositions, another way of saying that some clauses are more noun-like things in the propositions they package, while others are more verb-like processes (Aarts 2007). While much of this work has been cross-linguistic, Givón (1993) has worked on the idea in relation to the English clause system, and the following chapters draw on his ideas while updating it with a synthesis of the major reference grammars of English outlined above, most of which have been published after his original work.
3 Form-ﬁrst Descriptions of the English Clause System 31 9. Catenative chains No-TAM marker 10. verbless Coordinate clauses have two types: 1. Symmetric 2. Asymmetric Content clauses have four types: 1. 2. 3. 4. Declarative Closed interrogative (wh) Open Interrogative (if, whether) Exclamative Relative clauses have three types: 1. Wh relative 2. non-Wh (that or bare) 3. Fused relatives Relative clauses are either syntactically: 1. integrated 2. supplementary Comparative clauses have no subtypes but so have different connectors: 1.
A handbook and grammar of the Tagalog language by FIRST LIEUT. W.E.W. MACKINLAY