By Riikka Halme
Kwanyama ('Oshikwanyama' in line with the reliable Namibian regular) is a Wambo language, and correspondingly belongs to the Bantu languages. it's spoken by means of excess of part 1000000 humans in South Angola and Namibia.
Certainly this quantity contains the audio system of alternative closely-related Wambo types in Angola. those languages were studied particularly little, and the learn in their tonal structures has been fairly ignored. the current publication is the 1st caricature of Kwanyama grammar with a scientific account on tone. the most objective is to supply an research of the tonal approach of this language. hence the research discusses either the lexical tone, i.e. tone as an inherent estate of a lexeme, and the grammatical tone wich marks grammatical homes. the writer lived in a Kwanyama-speaking group in Angola for roughly part a 12 months and had the chance there to enhance her linguistic competence. As a researcher she retains to the culture of Generative Phonology within the experience that there are ideas that take the tone styles from the underlying illustration to a binary floor illustration, i.e. tonemes. with the intention to aid the reader to stick with the argumentation of the tonal research, this booklet is organised in one of these means that the segmental and tonal degrees are mentioned individually, by way of discussions on tone in nouns, verbs and minor be aware different types. After that, the research is expounded to the broader context of study on Guthrie's workforce R languages, specifically the Wambo languages. eventually, the reader unearths nominal and verbal paradigms in addition to a few texts, and a vocabulary Kwanyama-Englisch containing approximately 6,000 entries.
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Additional info for A Tonal Grammar of Kwanyama (Namibian African studies)
All of these are exemplified in (6) (6) Circumfixes: Slavey ya–ti ‘preach, bark, say’; cf. yahti ‘s/he preaches, barks, says’, xayadati ‘s/he prayed’, náya’ewíti ‘we will discuss’ (Rice 2012) Infixes: Mb˜engokre [Jé] -g- ‘plural’, cf. fãgnãn ‘to spend almost all (pl), sg fãnãn (Salanova 2012) Multiple Exponence: Choctaw akíiyokiittook ‘I didn’t go’; cf. iyalittook ‘I went’ (Broadwell 2006) In the Choctaw form, negation is marked in five independent ways: (a) substitution of a- for -li as 1sg subject marker; (b) prefixed k-; (c) suffixed -o(k); (d) an accentual feature of length on stem; and (e) suffixed -kii.
Yahti ‘s/he preaches, barks, says’, xayadati ‘s/he prayed’, náya’ewíti ‘we will discuss’ (Rice 2012) Infixes: Mb˜engokre [Jé] -g- ‘plural’, cf. fãgnãn ‘to spend almost all (pl), sg fãnãn (Salanova 2012) Multiple Exponence: Choctaw akíiyokiittook ‘I didn’t go’; cf. iyalittook ‘I went’ (Broadwell 2006) In the Choctaw form, negation is marked in five independent ways: (a) substitution of a- for -li as 1sg subject marker; (b) prefixed k-; (c) suffixed -o(k); (d) an accentual feature of length on stem; and (e) suffixed -kii.
E. 2. As a consequence of how features are assigned to individual words, a word may be specified for a value of a given feature, or it may be left unspecified for that feature; in some instances, it may even be specified for multiple values of a feature. Thus, for example, some nouns will be specified for a certain value of case, while some will have no specification for case, and some are specified for multiple case values. 2 lists the values that each of the seven features can take, when they are specified.
A Tonal Grammar of Kwanyama (Namibian African studies) by Riikka Halme