By Claude Hagège
This pioneering learn relies on an research of over two hundred languages, together with African, Amerindian, Australian, Austronesian, Indo-European and Eurasian (Altaic, Caucasian, Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Dravidian, Uralic), Papuan, and Sino-Tibetan. Adpositions are a virtually common a part of speech. English has prepositions; a few languages, comparable to eastern, have postpositions; others have either; and but others types that aren't relatively both. As grammatical instruments they mark the connection among components of a sentence: typically one aspect governs a noun or noun-like observe or word whereas the opposite services as a predicate. From the syntactic standpoint, the supplement of an adposition is dependent upon a head: during this final sentence, for instance, a head is the supplement of on whereas on a head will depend on relies and on is the marker of this dependency. Adpositions lie on the center of the grammar of so much languages, their usefulness making them recurrent in daily speech and writing. Claude Hagege examines their morphological good points, syntactic capabilities, and semantic and cognitive houses. He does so for the subsets either one of adpositions that categorical the relatives of agent, sufferer, and beneficiary, and of these which mark house, time, accompaniment, or device. Adpositions usually govern case and are often steadily grammaticalized into case. the writer considers the entire set of functionality markers, together with case, that seem as adpositions and, in doing so, throws gentle on tactics of morphological and syntactic switch in numerous languages and language households. His ebook may be welcomed through typologists and via syntacticians and morphologists of all theoretical stripes.
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Absently, she dipped a finger into the peanut butter and licked it clean. [M. Thurm , The Way We Live Now, 66] Although XPs may be predicated o f the subject o f a transitive verb, they receive not a resultative interpretation, but what is referred to as a depic tive interpretation, a term originally due to Halliday (1967). That is, Julia burned the cookies dirty cannot mean that Julia got dirty as a result of burning the cookies, but only that she burned the cookies when she was dirty. We are not aware o f any counterexamples to the DOR that involve transitive verbs.
The bombing destroyed the residents homeless. (14) a. The bears frightened *(the hikers). (C&R 1992:187, (35a)) b. *The bears frightened the campground empty. (C&R 1992:187, (37a)) (15) a. The magician hypnotized *(the volunteers). (C&R 1992:187, (35c)) b. *The magician hypnotized the auditorium quiet. (C&R 1992:187, (37c)) Several researchers (see, among others, Jackendoff 1990, Sato 1987) have suggested that at least some resultative constructions based on un ergative verbs and unspecified object verbs do involve “ arguments,” be cause the fake reflexives or nonsubcategorized NPs bear the same seman tic relation to the base verb in the resultative construction as the object of the preposition heading an oblique PP complement that can be found with this verb.
Levin 1988, among others). In order to make our discussion more concrete, many o f the properties that we require in a lexical semantic representation are illus trated here with a representation that takes the form o f a predicate de com position, but it is not clear that this is the only type o f representation that would meet our requirements. Any lexical semantic representation will be consistent with our approach if it recognizes that verb meanings include certain common elements that tie verbs together into semantically defined classes, but at the same time allows for the cross-classification of verbs.
Adpositions by Claude Hagège