By Lars J. Christiansen (auth.), Anders Nielsen (eds.)
Ammonia is among the 10 greatest commodity chemical compounds produced. The editor, Anders Nielsen, is study director with one of many greatest business catalyst manufacturers. He has compiled a whole reference on all elements of catalytical ammonia construction in undefined, from thermodynamics and kinetics to reactor and plant layout. One bankruptcy bargains with protection points of ammonia dealing with and storage.
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Extra info for Ammonia: Catalysis and Manufacture
8 gjcm 3 . The porosity is negligible . 73 gjcm 3 . , 41% [14J, and electron microscopy [11, 14,80J shows the presence of a well developed pore system. Precipitated (Fe,AI) catalyst models in the unreduced state contain pores with a 19-20 A radius and approximately 70 A radius [48J, while in the prereduced state these models have maxima in pore volume distribution at 20 A and at 140 A . The 20 A peak is thus unaffected by the reduction process. The BET area is smaller for a catalyst prepared by sintering than for a similar catalyst prepared by precipitation .
4% A1 2 0 3, Ah03 is observed in the X-ray powder diffraction diagram . 3 Calcium In the reduced catalyst CaO has been shown by Auger electron spectroscopy  and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  to remain in its oxidic state. Chemisorption measurements  and X-ray powder diffraction studies  show that during the reduction CaO segregate to the space between the Fe crystallites. 5%  during reduction depending on the composition and reduction temperature. 32 P. 7 gjcm 3 .
The heat of adsorption is increased by 6-10 kJ/mole for K promoted sites on Fe(1 00) [383, 411J and 8 kJ/mole for K-promoted sites on Fe(lll) [411J. Even at low coverages by K, the temperature programmed desorption spectra of hydrogen desorbing from H/K/Fe(1 00) or from H/K/Fe(111) are not split into peaks assignable to promoted or unpromoted sites respectively . 42 P. Stoltze The hydrogen chemisorption becomes activated when Al is present [193, 321]. A plausible explanation for this observation is that the structural promoters decorates the surface .
Ammonia: Catalysis and Manufacture by Lars J. Christiansen (auth.), Anders Nielsen (eds.)