Charles L. Dodgson's An elementary treatise on determinants PDF

By Charles L. Dodgson

ISBN-10: 141817985X

ISBN-13: 9781418179854

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It is an incomplete symbol, w h i c h (like a syllable of a w o r d ) has no m e a n i n g w h e n it s t a n d s in isolation. 5. E x a m p l e s . g. 1. The domain of the algebraic function f{x) = V(l -1 < Λ : < ! is the interval [—1, 1]. Its range is [0, 1]. 2. The domain of the algebraic function g{x) = —Λ/Χ, X ^ 0 is the interval [0, 00). Its range is (—00, 0]. 3. 4 consists of the intervals ( — 00, —3), (—3, 1), and (1, 00). 4. T h e domain of every polynomial is (—00, 00). Ex. 3. 4 (ii) the rational function R(x) 1x^ + 9 = x{x^ - 1) (iii) the algebraic f u n c t i o n / ( Λ ; ) = h V ( l — x^la^), (iv) the algebraic function g{x) = Y/ix^x"^ — 1)}.

As we a p p r o a c h 2 from either left or right, t h e values of g a p p r o a c h its value at 2. But this does not h a p p e n for / , a n d this brings a b o u t t h e break in its g r a p h at 2. Also we note t h a t if a function is defined at all points of t h e interval (c — 8, c -\- 8) except c, t h e point with x-coordinate c will be missing from its g r a p h a n d t h e r e will be a break in it. 1 Def. Let f be a (single-valued) except perhaps at a point c in L function defined on an interval /, (a) We say that f i s c o n t i n u o u s a t c, if and only if (i) / is defined at c and (ii) f{x) f{c) as χ c, (b) We say that f i s d i s c o n t i n u o u s a t c, if f is not continuous (c) We say that f i s c o n t i n u o u s o n t h e i n t e r v a l / , if and if f is continuous at each point in L at c, only 57 4.

3 T b m . 4 T h m . f{x)y (a) (b) (c) lim^^cSi^) then lim\fix)\=\Umf(x)\. 5 T h m . {ii)f{x) g{x) + Hmg{x). k being a given number, UinJ{x)Um^^^ provided Urn g{x) φ 0. = i^^X-^cfix) lim^^,g{x) // ^g{x) for {)<\x-c\ c. 6 E x a m p l e s . 1. Show that Mm^^c x'^ = where η is a positive integer. It follows at once from Def. _,c χ = c. Hence by T h m . 4(d) lim x^ = lim (χ - χ X^C (η factors) χ) X-^C ^ ^ = lim X ' lim χ X^C X-*C =z C ' C ·" C = 2.

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An elementary treatise on determinants by Charles L. Dodgson


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