By David G. Andrews
A quantitative advent to the Earth's surroundings for intermediate-advanced undergraduate and graduate scholars, with an emphasis on underlying actual ideas. This version has been introduced thoroughly updated, and now features a new bankruptcy at the physics of weather swap which builds upon fabric brought in prior chapters, giving the scholar a vast knowing of a few of the actual suggestions underlying this most vital and topical topic. unlike many different books on atmospheric technology, the emphasis is at the underlying physics. Atmospheric functions are built almost always within the difficulties given on the finish of every bankruptcy. The publication is a necessary source for all scholars of atmospheric physics as a part of an atmospheric technology, meteorology, physics, Earth technology, planetary technology, or utilized arithmetic direction.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics, Second Edition
Since the mixing ratio of the water vapour is so small (μ < 3 × 10−2 ), m ≈ md . Another important measure of the moisture content of air is the relative humidity, deﬁned by e RH = es (T) and usually expressed as a percentage. 5). So long as no condensation or evaporation takes place, this mass μ remains constant. 5. 8 Or, more correctly the speciﬁc humidity: see the footnote on page 20. However, as noted there, we shall ignore the small difference between these two quantities. 35 Moisture in the atmosphere Fig.
6 In particular the total mass of the atmosphere is Ms = 1 g p0 (x, y) dx dy = 1 p0 . g surface The same results must hold for the reference state so that, under an adiabatic redistribution of mass, the global integral p1 (or global mean) of the pressure on the θ1 isentrope (and therefore on every isentrope) must remain unchanged. Together with other arguments, this allows the reference state and also the difference in total potential energy between the actual and reference states to be calculated.
10 are two other sets of curves, related to moisture. The ﬁrst are the lines of constant saturation mixing ratio μs (T, p): these are almost straight and are drawn dashed. 42) if an accurate expression for es (T) is known. Also plotted are the saturated adiabatics; these are noticeably curved. Each saturated adiabatic can be labelled by the temperature at which it cuts the p = 1000 hPa surface (the wet-bulb potential temperature θw ) or the potential temperature which it approaches at low p (the equivalent potential temperature θe ).
An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics, Second Edition by David G. Andrews